Tuesday, November 29, 2022

Tuesday [5 to 10]

Covfefe time.

10.  Hantom


Bal*enc*ia*ga's new statement. We iz sorry.  

Interpretation: We got found out.

[JH: Animals they are.]

9.  Steve

The following video will shock you James - I've actually been through it with my mother this year. The hospital put her on their 'care pathway' but didn't factor in me. It got to the point where I threatened to call the police (as others have) if they put certain 'medications' into her veins. My mother recovered because I fed her and made sure that she drank enough fluids. This will make your piss boil:

They have been, and are killing people in care homes and hospitals - this is how they do it


8.  West matters

Faina Savenkova – Letter to Donald Trump


The Church of Humanitarian Intervention Threatens the Survival of Our Species. The Destruction of Russia and China on the Drawing Board of the Pentagon


EU upset with US, all about money. NYT, NATO weapons running low. Bakhmut fall inevitable. U/1


Man banned for wearing cross / Hugo Talks


Archbishop Vigano appeals for a worldwide anti-globalist alliance


7.  TCW today

Many articles over there, this one bought (sic) my eye:


6.  Now, Next and Sackers

Sackers has commented and I’ve found this this morning:


It’s part of a series.  It will get you there, you can find the rest.  

Hmmmm, just been through, seems there’s no navigation which will get to the other parts … not quite sure of this substack thing yet.

5.  Ohm’s and other laws

Ohm's law states that the voltage across a conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it, provided all physical conditions and temperatures remain constant. In the equation, the constant of proportionality, R, is called Resistance and has units of ohms, with the symbol Ω.

For Kassandra’s purpose, the resistance probably becomes important, were she to increase point to point length of various wires, leads etc. … but if she just plus the Christmas lamps in directly, it’s not all that relevant to her.

Now in my case, and correct me if I’m way off beam, I do it like this … I first want to know my circuits in the flat and what’s fed by which circuit (of two).  I want to know total load in amps.

So, if my circuit is rated 13 amps, I add the amperage of all devices.  I get the amps by dividing Watts by Volts.  Take my 40 watt lamp.  Divide by 220 volts and I get 0.18 amps.  Given that I run no fridge, use the occasional lekky kettle, mainly gas for cooking and have few major power drawers - boiler is the main one, set on “economy” and no other heaters but three 40W lamps - my amperage is fairly low.

I use nothing overhead - no ceiling lights nor devices, only floor level sockets, plus the boiler, use no oven, only gas on hob.  So my amperage is about 15% of rated for circuit, spiking to 50% at times.  Lekky is costing me £1.50 flat per day.  Gas is set £78 a month but I’m using well within that.


  1. 10. Not getting away with that weak effort.

    The DM are still on their case.


  2. #5. James, I think you will find that your mains voltage is closer to 240 volts AC than 220 volts unless you are at the end of a very long supply line..
    BTW, the Greek mains voltage is 230 to 240 volts AC. so I don't understand what Kassandra is talking about unless she has a thumping great step down transformer to power her light bulbs in which case the lamp voltage is not that important.

  3. Without knowing the specifics of your flat I can only take a guess. You (presumably) have a dedicated meter and fusebox/consumer unit? In which case take a closer look at what rating fuses/circuit breakers are present, and what they feed (these OUGHT to be labelled!). Lighting circuits (your "Overhead" ones) will be 5 or 6amp, and "13 amp" sockets should be on a ring main which would be protected by a 30 or 32 amp device. The "13amp" rating refers to the maximum current an individual socket can supply, and each matching plug has a replaceable cartridge fuse - available in a range of values, down to 3 amps for small appliances and portable lights etc. The (gas?) boiler might be on a dedicated circuit, but would likely use no more than 200 watts (including the circulating pump). If you have an electric cooker it would need at least a 32 or 40 amp supply. From your description the electric kettle will be the single largest load: these are typically rated at 1500-2200 watts (6.5-8.7 amps) on 230 volts. If you want to have a better idea of your overall consumption you can get a monitor which simply clips over one of the meter tails, and connects to an in-home display for around £30. These give most of the benefits of a "Smart" meter with NONE of the disadvantages.

  4. You may be surprised by your mains - a few years ago, after some electrical failures, I measured mine - over 250V - not long after, the leccy board changed a nearby transformer!

    1. I was surprised to read a while ago that one argument for phasing out traditional light bulbs was that manufacturers had to make different versions for different countries. Parts of Europe - eg France - were said to be 230V while others - like the UK - were standardised on 240V. So 230V bulbs were overdriven and blew quickly in the UK while 240V bulbs were inefficient on 230V. Whether this claim was genuine I have no idea but when I had occasion to measure it in France I did find it was a few volts lower. I believe they create, or once did, their 230V mains voltage using two out of phase 120 volt lines rather than a 240V line and neutral. My mate did that when he worked in the USA - using out of phase 120V on 'live' and 'neutral' pins to fit a UK socket to run a UK kettle for his tea.

    2. The real reason for the phasing out of incandescent light bulbs was diktat from the EU that we all had to use low wattage LED bulbs.
      Here in France we have single phase 240 volts and I have never encountered 120 volts in my more than 30 years of living here in the country. We do on occasions see 250 volts because someone has rooftop solar that needs the higher voltage to push the power back to the grid (the same as in the UK).
      The big problem with the LED bulbs was the low grade capacitor used in them for isolation.

    3. I agree but only sort of ivan. It was actually to force us to use those useless mini fluorescents, LEDs came years later. Rumour at the time suggested that Phillips, who made loads of low profit trad bulbs, spent a fortune lobbying the EU so we would have to buy their expensive patented tech high-profit CFs. Remember when they were £10 each? It was one of the first low energy/CO2 scams. But I can remember being warned before french holidays that some areas were still 120v AC - but that's going back a long while, I'm sure their systems now are standardised but the journey has been different. Our holiday place had no consumer unit or trip (we had it upgraded) nor any wiring colour indicating live or neutral, it had 2 pin outlets on light switches etc absolute shambles but it was original. FWIW I can also remember the changeover from DC to AC240 in the UK, my father had to rewire the house and as a child I helped pull wires through with him. Some items, like an old record player I was given, had to use a PSU to use the 'new' AC power.

  5. JH: I’m assuming MD is referring to Ian’s flat. My illustration was to show that it’s working fine here because I know the ratings - 13 amp refers to one wall socket. As I have a power cord coming off each, I needed to know the total load, inc. surge, of each device, plus overall on the circuit. I use RCDs with each cord.

    1. 5 - "Now in my case, and correct me if I’m way off beam, I do it like this … I first want to know my circuits in the flat and what’s fed by which circuit (of two). I want to know total load in amps."

      Easy to work out which circuit any given socket is on - simply switch off the MCB on the distribution board then note which sockets don't work. A small mains lamp is good for a testing device. However, sockets are on 'ring mains', which means that the cable comes from the MCB, is connected to all the sockets on that circuit in daisy chain fashion, then returns from the last socket in the chain to the consumer unit. There will usually be one 32 amp MCB per ring main, and each MCB should be marked as to where that ring main is, eg. "Kitchen sockets, Downstairs sockets, Upstairs sockets". Lighting is the same, connected in daisy chain fashion on a 6 amp MCB and there are usually two - "Upstairs lights and Downstairs lights". For something like a landing or top stairwell light that is on a two way switch, the light will be on the upstairs circuit, regardless of having a switch downstairs.

      The French do things quite differently. Instead of ring mains they have radial circuits where each wall socket is connected directly to the MCB. They are a nightmare to work with but well, that's the French for you.

      "So, if my circuit is rated 13 amps, I add the amperage of all devices. I get the amps by dividing Watts by Volts."

      That is correct. Sockets are rated at 13 amp max, regardless of whether it's a single, double or triple. Its easier to look on the label of your appliance and find the wattage, since current isn't always given. A 13 amp socket will handle 3120 watts maximum, so something like an electric fire, fan heater or tumble dryer requires its own socket with nothing else connected. Other, lighter loads such as table lamps, TVs and PCs can use adapters or extension sockets as long as the max wattage is not exceeded.

      "Take my 40 watt lamp. Divide by 220 volts and I get 0.18 amps."

      Firstly the voltage is 240 not 220, though many appliances are rated as 220 they won't suffer from over voltage because on the scale of things 20 volts is nothing. The voltage rating is nominal anyway and there will always be slight regional differences due to tolerances in the grid transformers. A transformer has a tolerance of +/-20% of the nominal voltage. Your 40 watt bulb actually draws 0.167 amps if the nominal voltage is used in the calculation.

      "Given that I run no fridge, use the occasional lekky kettle, mainly gas for cooking and have few major power drawers - boiler is the main one, set on “economy” and no other heaters but three 40W lamps - my amperage is fairly low."

      If you want it lower, change those 40 watt bulbs to LED. LED bulbs are not measured in watts (though that is usually included in the ratings). The important factor in choosing LED bulbs is Lumen.

      In addition to the main ceiling light in the living room I have fitted one, small studio spotlight (GU10 bulb) and changed the single light switch for a twin. It is mounted on the ceiling in a corner and directed at the wall in a downward angle. This gives exactly the same light as a table or standard lamp in the corner. The bulb is LED (neutral white) which is rated at 370 lumen. That is the same light output as a halogen 50 watt spot bulb, but the LED only consumes 4 watts. There is now no halogen bulbs in the house. Bathroom, for example, 1800 lumen, 13 watts. Living room main light, 2200 lumen, 18 watts. Surprising how little you need.

    2. Not necessary to use an RCD with any indoor appliance, since there is one in your consumer unit. RCDs are normally used outside on things like lawn mowers or hedge trimmers, where moisture can present problems, or like some stupid people, chopping the cable with the tool.

      Difference between MCB and RCD - The MCB (Minature Circuit Breaker) detects overload on any circuit connected to it. It acts just like a fuse, except you don't need to change the wire, it simply switches off and won't turn back on again until the fault is removed.

      The RCD (Residual Current Device) detects any current leaks to earth. Electricity always takes the path of least resistance to earth and that could be your body. Therefore, if the RCD detects any current greater than 30 milliamps (30/1000 of an amp) leaking to earth it switches off very fast. The one in your consumer unit is wider/bigger than the MCBs, has a "test" button and is always on the end of the row. In my consumer unit there are two RCDs, one for lights (up and down) and one for everything else.

    3. JH: It should not be necessary, no. However, we have exposed, rat eaten and rained upon wiring via broken tiles, which caused me to not use any lighting, only that through floor level wall sockets, plus the dedicated boiler and cooker (I have no fridge). I did not trust the wiring, hence the RCDs at the time. As they have not caused issues, there things still are.